Rog Dolos: “I am an independent game developer taking a hedonistic approach to game development: I make what I am driven to make and that keeps me happy. I have a strong preference for cooperative / collaborative gameplay.”

For a longer personal bio: I sometimes update this archived post from G+, though I can be found more reliably at @RogDolos on Twitter.



Mixed-Success Combat Rolls for 5E

Last week I cryptically posted a whiteboard chart to my social media. Here’s an update to that chart, with an explanation of how I’m using it for 5th Edition (and will adapt it to Apparata Kitbash later):

The concept of a “mixed” or “partial” success dice-rolling system is not new. It’s been popularized with Apocalypse World and continued in a host of games “Powered by the Apocalypse”. They use 2d6 rolls with 10-12 = success, 7-9 = partial-success and 6-or-less = failure. I like how Dungeon World describes it: “7–9 is still a success but it comes with compromises or cost.” In my version for 5E, the cost will give enemies the opportunity to attack back (and otherwise don’t take the usual turns).

d20 Mixed-Success System:

20+ 14-19 1-13
    Grand Success         Mixed-Success         Failure    

Note: I feel my players react well when I refer to a 20+ total as a “Grand Success” and the 14-19 range simply as “Success”. The psychological shift in terminology is probably effective, yet I still like saying “Mixed-Success”. Regardless, it should be treated as the standard result.

Why? How does this work?

My primary goal is to speed up combat: I’ve removed Initiative. On a player’s mixed-success or failure, enemies make a reactive attack at the end of the player’s turn. Neither side makes any additional rolls to see if they hit, just this player-facing roll of testing for success. AC is no longer used to calculate hits, but instead is used to mitigate damage (more on that below).

In practice, it means a player rolls for success and then immediately rolls for damage or not. The DM may also directly roll for damage appropriately from the enemy (occurs after the player’s completed turn).

I have not (yet) applied mixed-success to skill checks. If I do, I may use a different system because this is tuned for combat encounters.

A Comparison:

Standard 5th Edition combat goes something like this:

  1. Combat starts out with each combatant rolling for Initiative. The first on the initiative chart takes a turn. During the first round, anyone caught “surprised” skips their first turn.
  2. The player (or enemy) chooses an action to make. If that action is an attack, they typically roll a d20 and add their appropriate modifier (for a melee attack that is typically STR + Proficiency). They state their total.
  3. The DM checks the total against the enemy’s AC, describes how it hits or misses. If it hits, the DM asks the player to roll for damage.
  4. The player rolls for damage.
  5. The DM subtracts the damage from the enemy’s health and describes what occurs (especially if it dies).
  6. The player may also use a bonus action and interaction, then it moves onto the next turn (back to step 2) on the Initiative list, including the enemies on the list.

Revised Mixed-Success combat goes like this:

  1. There are no Initiative rolls. Players take their turns in their already determined “marching order”. The DM may determine enemies to have “surprise” advantage and begin with related attacks, but otherwise enemies only act reactively, at the end of individual player turns.
  2. The player chooses an action. They may make a d20 attack roll, adding their modifiers and stating their total as normal. The player then knows whether they hit or not, using the chart. Any success is a hit. If they get a “Grand Success” then they have blocked the enemies from taking any reactive actions. If they hit in the mixed-success range, they still hit, but an enemy (usually the one they are attacking) will get a turn following theirs.
  3. The player may use a bonus action, interaction and end their turn.
  4. An enemy may take a turn only If the player’s attack roll resulted in mixed-success or failure AND there is an enemy with a turn left this round (one turn per combatant per round). Usually the DM chooses the enemy the player had attacked, but they don’t have to. After that it moves to the next player’s turn.

It may not seem like many less steps, but I’ve found that removing the back-and-forth on AC checks speeds things up considerable. There are other cool implications and I also I intend to take it further with Apparata Kitbash by reducing player-hesitations while adding modifiers (more on that in a future article).

If the player does not make any sort of attack roll, mixed-success is the default for their turn. Players cannot avoid enemy actions by only using spells or abilities that automatically hit or otherwise take no attack rolls.

Monster Management:

I love the the potential for players to inherently strategize some crowd-control over their enemies.

A basic example:

Now instead:

Imagine how the players can manipulate the battlefield this way. Plus crits have a good, solid additional oomph to them!

Speaking of monsters: If a creature has legendary actions, those can still apply, or a DM can give that creature an additional turn per round after the players.

Armor Class?

Armor Class doesn’t go away with this system. Make an easy conversion for AC to mitigate damage instead of being the to-hit target. For each player and monster, calculate an AC-bonus the same way you would a stat bonus : With every even number above 10, add a bonus point. For example, an AC of 16 would be an AC-bonus of +3 and an AC of 18 would be a +4.

The AC-bonus is used to subtract incoming damage. Simple mitigation.

I admit I haven’t done hard testing on AC-mitigation for creature balance just yet. I may change it outright to whatever is above 10 (so 18 becomes 8) or use a multiplier (AC-bonus x 1.5 ??) to tweak it. For the most part I feel CR ratings on 5E monsters are pretty loosely calculated as it is. Defining encounter difficulty is an inexact science. The point is it should feel fair to your players.

Some Math:

With Apocalypse World’s 2d6 rolls, the base chance rates are 16.67% for good success, 41.67% for partial success and also 41.67% for failure. Rates change with modifiers and these numbers make sense for PbtA games. Note that in either system: partial / mixed-success stays at a static rate throughout in the middle, the modifiers just expand the greater success and crunch down the failures.

With 5E, modifiers ramp up quickly with initial character stats and then crawl upwards with level gains. I decided on a distribution that resulted in 10% failure at a max of +11 (best possible stat bonus + proficiency). The numbers may seem harsh at their base: Just 5% for Grand Success, 30% for Mixed-Success and a whopping 65% Failure. I like the psychological effect of this, because players feel like they are beating the odds (with their modifiers doing the heavy lifting). Grand Success isn’t as hard as it seems. Even a poorly rolled level 1 character in 5E is likely to be using an attack roll with a modifier of +3 or more.

I also adjusted my players down a notch in proficiency, but this is not necessary. As a DM, play around with the proficiency bonuses if you want to mess with difficulty in your campaign.


Descending Dice, Ascending Dice, Countdown Dice, Boost Dice, Exploding Dice!

“Here, take these exploding dice.”

Dice mechanics have some nifty, ominous names. What the hell do all these mean and why do I bring them up? … Oh… wait first I should give the pitch…

The Pitch: Apparata Kitbash is a game for people who love rolling dice! For players who enjoy complexity but don’t want to spend game-time crunching numbers, looking up tables or digging through manuals. At least not at the table when you are playing the game.

Now that’s out of the way, what sort of dice mechanics will Apparata Kitbash use? I could shout “all of them!” but honestly I don’t just dump any mechanic into the game, even though it’s referred to as a kitbash. Maaaaybe most of these will get squeezed in, even if some are just assigned to a solitary spell.

Here are some that I am considering:

Player-facing Dice:

Most often applied to to-hit rolls against a monster’s AC. This removes mystery, but it speeds up games considerably.

Exploding Dice:

I believe Savage Worlds and Open Legend (I haven’t played either, I admit) both use Exploding Dice. Also known as “Acing” dice or the “rule of 6”. Combat systems really need to be catered to it and you wouldn’t be able to apply 5E’s “bound accuracy” since numbers can go right off the chart. Must be exciting though, right?

I wouldn’t apply this to general combat or skill tests, but I may assign it specifically to suitable spells.

Ascending Score:

The score-increase-by-1 variation of this system is in The Black Hack, for increasing player stats each level-up and I am considering using it in a similar way. I have not yet decided whether to make base stats go up by 1 or by the dice result, nor have I decided how many attempts they would get per level (The Black Hack rolls all stats each level, but I would limit that). I’ll make a full post on this, once I’m ready to test it.

Descending Dice:

The idea here is to create tension, because rather than knowing the exact number of uses, it’s a chance to degrade. Also known as “Usage Dice” or “Risk Dice”. Again inspiration comes from The Black Hack and the author suggests using this system sparingly (too much tension breaks).

I am not sure if I will use Descending Dice at all, unless I wanted to make weapons run durability tests after combat. Hmm.

Boost Dice:

5E uses this mechanic for “Bardic Inspiration” and many DMs have house rules that DM-Inspiration also use a physical die (rather than Advantage, which is described below).

I love Boost Dice and I’ve already determined that for Apparata Kitbash I will be handing out a Boost Die every time a player critically fails (d20 natural-1), to offset the downsides of critical fumbles. Incoming article on this one soon.

Advantage / Disadvantage:

I love Advantage as well, it’s one of the best elements I would shameless use from 5E. The psychology on this is so strong, it feels so significant to roll two d20s. The math for Advantage / Disadvantage works out to +/- 3.325.

Partial Success:

Apocalypse World popularized the idea of a partial success and I really enjoy it. In some games it feels a bit punishing though. Also known as Mixed Success. I will write a full post on this topic, but in a nutshell Apparata Kitbash will be using a d20 variation of this for combat rolls.

Countdown Dice:

No idea if I’ll use this to track anything. Probably not, I prefer tokens, but I may make optional rules.

Result Modifiers:

This is a bog-standard system that almost every player expects in a tabletop RPG, but one that I will be trying my best to avoid for Apparata Kitbash. I would rather roll dice, add them together and that’s that. In most cases I will translate modifiers into additional dice.


Since I have mentioned games that have inspired me, I should list links. I do not claim any sort of endorsement from these:

If you know of any other clever dice-related mechanics / resolutions, please do let me know! This is far from a comprehensive list. Also, it’s possible I’m not using all of my terminology exactly-correctly, so feel free to correct me. I can be contacted as @NecroRogIcon on Twitter.


Physical Materials

I like games with physical, tangible elements: rolling dice, playing cards, tracking with tokens or coins, and moving minis around a map.

When I started DMing I found myself crafting maps, handouts of various notes / signs, potion jars, my own style of spell cards– I felt compelled towards homebrew rules using dice in place of other calculations– That led to my core design principle for Apparata Kitbash: Making a game with the complexity and depth of a classic tabletop RPG, but with as many physical interactions as possible to resolve actions.

I like pen and paper, but I love dice and cards.

There will still be character sheets, with stats to roll and determine during the character-creature stage of a campaign. Less calculations during gameplay. During combat or skill tests, players will likely be adding dice rather than modifiers.

5E Homebrew Examples:

For Apparata Kitbash:

Every ability, feature or feat I design will be on playable cards, just as spells will be. There will be mini-decks as well, which would be comparable to table lookups. Some mechanics will have instructions for handing out dice (dice pools of that sort will usually be d6, because those tiny dice are cheap and fun).

For dice or tokens that expire or get used up from pools, a cup-container in the middle of the table is convenient for discards.

What are the downsides? Printing, cutting out cards. Dice and tokens to purchase. It’s old-school at-the-table stuff, although online paradigms are possible for systems like Roll20 or Fantasy Grounds (not yet my priority though).

I will manage the printing+cutting burden by making a limited core set of rules, abilities and spells for the base game. DMs can add from sets of modular optional rulesets / mechanics that I will also create, or homebrew their own. I will be distributing files to print in PDF form. I do not have plans to ship the game as a hardcopy (book or boxed), but who knows down-the-road if that ever seems feasible.